Kowethas an Yeth Kernewek


My a dheuth ha bos omvyskys yn Ragdres Taves an Tir awos ow aswonvos a'n yeth kernewek hag ynwedh drefen bos istori leel da genev.  My a omgemeras dhe oberi orth an benndre Nanstallon.  Kyn nag ov vy trigys y'n benndre, my re omlowenhas dre lies kerdh y'n ranndir.

Agan hwithrans a fogellas war an Mappa Dega 1840, mes yn skon my a gonvedhas bos rann a’n benndre arnowydh keas mes a’n mappa ma, drefen bos Pluwneves byghanna ena.  Ny ystynna an bluw dhe gledhbarth an Avon Kammel, ha nyns esa ynni an rann est a’n benndre, le may sev lemmyn Greenacres ha Boscarne View. Byttegyns, dhe'm breus vy, elven dhe les a’n benndre Nanstallon yw hy hevren gans an Avon Kammel, an hyns-horn koth ha'n trevesigethow yn ogas, kepar ha Tregear ha Boskarn.  Ytho my a erviras komprehendya an re ma.

Nanstallon yw hanow-tyller dhe les, gans an ger kernewek nans ynno.  Furv a-varr a’n ger o nant hag yn nebes henwyn-tyller a'n Osow Kres, y hyllir gweles an lytherennans lan po lant.  Hanow an drevesigeth ma y’n Osow Kres yw skrifys Lantalan yn 1201, Nanstalen yn 1392, Lantalan yn 1412, ha Nanstallen yn 1438.

An rann ma a'n Avon Kammel, hag a ystynn a Drecarne, dyghowbarth a Velindroghya, bys dhe'n heyl, o henwys Alan, Allen po Aleyn, y’n kynsa le.  An rann ughella, a'n bennfenten bys dhe Drecarne, o an Kammel.  Mar dhiwedhes avel 1769, yn y "Henses a Gernow" William Borlase a gampollas an hen ger dhe Benkarow hag "usi ow korvires orth an Alan". An avon a aswonyn lemmyn avel an Allen o henwys an Layne. Ytho, dell hevel, Nanstallon a styr "nans an Alan", kyn feu profyes ynwedh yth yw martesen "nans Talan", mar pe Talan hanow personel.

Ogas dhe Nanstallon y kevir Treger, le mayth esa ker vyghan romanek, annedhys dres termyn berr ynter 54-80 AD. An hanow a dheu dhyworth tre + ker.  Yn Kernow yma lies tyller Treger aga hanow, lytherennys Tregear po Tregeare, oll ogas dhe hen geryow. 

Tamm kledhbarth a’n avon y kevir Boskarn bos+karn.  An hanow a dheu dhyworth bos + karn.  An teylu Flamank o perghenogyon an manerji Boskarn a-dhia an tridhegves kansbledhen. Aga hanow-teylu a dhiskwa bos aga devedhyans Flemen.  Esel an moyha a vri a’n teylu ma yw Thomas Flamank, laghyas, ha hembrenkyas, gans An Gof, a’n Sordyans, a denkys dhrog, yn1497, may keskerdhas an dus gernewek dhe Loundres rag protestya erbynn kuntell a dollow rag bresel y'n kledhbarth.  Dibennys veu ev yn Tyburn, mes an teylu Flamank, sevys a'y vroder, John, a besya avel perghenogyon manerji Boskarn bys dhe'n nownsegves kansvledhen.

Hanow-tyller nowyttha yn Nanstallon yw "Gold Bank".  Diskwedhys yw war an Mappa Dega 1840 may ma moy ages dewdhek annedh ha splatt yn-dann bennlinen "Gold Bank".  Byttegyns ny veu kevys an hanow yn kovskrifen a-varra, ha kevrinek yw y dhevedhyans.  My a omwovyn mars eus neb triger yn Nanstallon a yll y dhisplegya.

Yth esa nebes chapelyow yn Nanstallon.  An pennti, "Chapel Cottage" y hanow hedhyw, o Chapel Bibel Kristyon, po "Bryanite" yn 1840.  William O'Bryan a veu genys yn 1778 ogas dhe Lostwydhyel.  Ev a dhallathas avel pronter, holyer a Wesley, mes yn 1815. ev a fondyas bagas nowydh, Bibel Kristyon, wosa disakordyans gans dyskyblon Wesley.  An Mappa Dega 1840 a dhiskwa bos Trest "Bryanite" perghen an chapel ma y'n termyn na.  Keffrys y’n Mappa Dega, pols alemma, yth esa chapel Methodek Wesley.  Drehevys yn 1865 veu tressa chapel, Methodek Wesley ynwedh, hag y’n jydh hedhyw chi privedh, "Hillcote" y hanow

Drehevyans aral a vri yw an skol, hag a veu drehevys yn 1877 wosa an Reyth Adhyskans 1870 dhe fondya Skolyow Kesva.  Desinys veu gans Silvanus Trevail, pennser neb a dheuth a Logsulyan.  Ev a dhrehevis meur a skolyow ha drehevyansow erel a vri yn Kernow, hag yth esa dhodho negys sewenus yn Truru.  Ev a dhesinyas ynwedh chi tiek nowydh yn Tregear yn 1881.  Ev a weresas an displegyans a dornyaseth yn Kernow, ow tesinya ostelyow bras kepar hag Ostel Penntir yn Tewynblustri hag Ostel Karrbons. Soweth, ev a omladhas yn 1903. 

Yn 1834 y feu igerys an Hyns-Horn Bosvena & Ponswad, hag a dremena a-hys an nans Kammel, tamm a-gledh a Nanstallon, rag kemeres tewes an mor, avel godeyl, a-dhyworth an heyl bys dhe'n bargenyow-tir powel.  Yth esa kay gwara, le may feu gesys dhe godha an tewes, Kay Gwara Nanstallon y hanow.  Ny veu an hyns-horn ma junys dhe hyns-horn nahen bys dhe 1888, pan veu ev kesunys dhe'n Hyns-Horn Meur West dre hyns-horn dibarth Boskarn dhe Vosvena.  Wosa henna, yn 1895, ev a veu kesunys gans an Hyns-Horn Loundres & Soth-West, hag a dheuth a Okehampton.  Kay rag tremenysi a veu drehevys yn 1906 dhe Nanstallon, ha rag an kynsa termyn, tremenysi a ylli viajya a-dhyworth Nanstallon y honan.  Y’n kettermyn y feu drehevys pons dres an avon rag kesunya an kay nowydh ha'n benndre.  Keffrys ha lies hyns-horn erel, an huni ma a veu deges yn 1966, mes lemmyn, meurgerys yw gans diwrosoryon ha kerdhoryon, avel Lergh an Kammel.

Ny dhiskudhas ow hwithrans yn Nanstallon saw nebes henwyn-tyller a dhevedhyans kernewek, ha nyns yw henna sowdhanus, drefen bos koll a'n yeth kewsys moy a-varr y'n rann ma a Gernow ages dell o pella dhe'n howlsedhes.  Byttegyns, da yw gweles an benndre dhe witha hy ertach ha'y gonisogeth der hy gwiasva ha'y lyver-termyn. Ynwedh yma an yeth ow pos devnydhys a-lemmyn yn nebes henwyn-chi, kepar ha'n lytherva goth, henwys lemmyn "Lytherva".

Sarah Cooke


Kowethas an Yeth Kernewek


I became involved in the Taves an Tir Project because of my knowledge of the Cornish language and also because I enjoy local history.  I undertook to work on the village of Nanstallon.  Although I am not a resident of the village, I have enjoyed many walks in the area.

Our research focussed on the 1840 Tithe Map, but I quickly realised that part of the modern village was excluded from this map because the parish of Lanivet was smaller then.  The parish did not extend north of the River Camel, or include the eastern part of the village, where Greenacres and Boscarne View now stand. However I think that an important part of Nanstallon village is its link with the river Camel, the old railway and the old settlements around, such as Tregear and Boscarne.  So I decided to include these.

Nanstallon is an interesting place-name, containing the Cornish nans,  meaning valley.  An early form of the word was nant and in some mediaeval names it appears as lan or lant.  The name of this mediaeval settlement is written as Lantalan in 1201, Nanstalen in 1392, Lantalan in 1412 and Nanstallen in 1438.

This part of the river Camel, extending from Trecarne, south of Valley Truckle, to the estuary, was originally known as the Alan, Allen or Aleyn. The higher section, from the source to Trecarne, was the Camel.  Even as late as 1769, in his "Antiquities of Cornwall", William Borlase referred to the ancient fort at Pencarrow as "overlooking the Alan".  The river that we now know as the Allen was called the Layne.  So it seems that the name of Nanstallon means "the valley of the Alan", although it has also been suggested that it might be "the valley of Talan", with Talan as a personal name.   

Close to Nanstallon is Tregear, where there was a small Roman fort occupied for a short period between 54-80 AD.  The name comes from tre + ker, meaning "farmstead by a fort".  There are several other places named Tregear or Tregeare in Cornwall, all near an ancient fort.  

Just north of the river from Nanstallon lies Boscarne.  This name comes from bos + carn, meaning "a dwelling by a tor or rock-pile".  Boscarne Manor was held by the Flamank family from the 13th century.  Their surname indicates that they were originally Flemish. The most well-known member of that family was Thomas Flamank, a lawyer and one of the leaders of the ill-fated Rebellion in 1497 when the Cornish people marched to London to protest against the raising of taxes for war in the north.  He was executed at Tyburn, but the Flamank family, descended from his brother, John, continued to own Boscarne Manor until the 19th century.

A more recent place-name in Nanstallon is Gold Bank. It appears in the Tithe Apportionment record of 1840, where over a dozen plots of land and dwellings come under the heading of "Gold Bank".  However no earlier record of the name has been found, and the origin of the name remains a mystery.  I wonder if there is anyone in the village who can throw any light on this.

Several chapels existed in Nanstallon.  The present-day Chapel Cottage was a Bible Christian, or Bryanite, Chapel in the 1840s.  William O'Bryan was born in 1778 near Lostwithiel.  Originally a Weslyan preacher, he founded the Bible Christians in 1815 after a disagreement with the Weslyans.  The 1840 Tithe record shows that this  chapel was owned by the Bryanite Trustees at that time.  Also in the Tithe record, just a short distance up the road, was a Weslyan Methodist chapel.  A third chapel, also Weslyan, was built in 1865 and is now a private house known as Hillcote.

Another building of interest is the school, which was built in 1877 after the 1870 Education Act had set up Board Schools.  It was designed by Silvanus Trevail, an architect who came from Luxulyan. He designed many schools and other important buildings in Cornwall, and had a thriving practice in Truro.  He also drew up plans for a new farmhouse at Tregear in 1881. He helped Cornwall to develop its tourist industry by designing hotels such as the Headland Hotel at Newquay and the Carbis Bay Hotel. Sadly he committed suicide in 1903.

The Bodmin & Wadebridge Railway, which ran along the Camel valley just north of Nanstallon, was opened in 1834 to carry sea sand from the estuary to inland farms as fertiliser. There was a "sand-drop" siding, known as Nanstallon Wharf.  This railway remained unconnected to any other railway system until 1888 when it was connected at Boscarne Junction to Bodmin and the Great Western Railway.  Then in 1895 it was joined up to the London & South Western Railway which came from Okehampton.  Nanstallon Halt was built in 1906, so for the first time passengers could travel directly from Nanstallon.  A bridge was built over the river at that time to link the Halt with the village.  Along with many other lines, this railway was closed in 1966, but now, as the Camel Trail, it is popular with cyclists and walkers.

My research in Nanstallon only revealed a few place-names of Cornish derivation, which is not surprising as the language ceased to be spoken in this part of Cornwall much earlier than further west. However, it is good to see that the heritage and culture of the village is being preserved by its website and magazine, and also that the language is still used currently in some house names, such the old post office, now called Lytherva.

Sarah Cooke

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